The current and voltage transformers are together called as the Instrument transformers.
Current transformer is used for the measurement of the alternating current by taking samples of the higher currents of the system. These reduced samples are in accurate proportions with the actual high currents of the system. These are used for installation and maintenance of the current relays in substations for protection purpose which are normally have low-current ratings for their operation.
Potential transformer is quite similar to the current transformer, but it is used for taking samples of high voltages of a system for providing low-voltage to the relays of protection system and also to the low-rating meters for voltage measurement. From this low-voltage measurement, the actual system’s high voltage can be calculated without measuring high voltages directly to avoid the cost of the measurement system.
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