Challenges in Personalized Medicine


Modern medicine has been able to drastically improve the quality of life of the global population. Diseases such as polio, syphilis, tuberculosis or the plague have been almost eradicated and are successfully treatable or curable. The next milestone for modern medicine is personalized medicine. This novel discipline does not target the broad population, but focuses on the individual for the diagnosis and beyond. Personalized medicine takes the individual’s disease pattern, the patient’s constitution and gender and the resulting implications for the therapies and medicines into account. The overall goal is to create a therapy tailored to the individual that can, if necessary, be adjusted and fine-tuned according to the disease progression.

The combination of a plethora of modern technologies is required to enable such specialized treatments. As such, a tailored cancer therapy could be designed using flow cytometers, DNA sequencing and organ-on-a-chip applications.

Flow cytometer for analysis and diagnosis

Flow cytometers are used for high throughput cell analysis. In these devices, cells flow past an analysis unit (e.g. voltage or fluorescence read-out) at high velocity. The recorded voltage or light signal depends on the shape, structure, size and/or color of the cells. This way, cells with the desired properties can be identified and isolated using cell sorter technology.

Flow cytometers have received special attention with regard to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients. CTCs can be isolated from the patients’ blood and can therefore be a minimally invasive alternative to potentially complex and invasive traditional biopsies. These liquid biopsies have the potential to reduce the patients’ pain level, the overall risk and the total costs. In cases where the position of the primary tumor or the patient’s constitution does not allow for a traditional procedure, the CTCs can be used to gather the critical data required for a complete diagnosis.

CTCs, which were found in a cancer patient’s blood for the first time in 1869, typically originate from the primary tumor and are leaked into the blood stream or the lymphatic system. CTCs can be found in a blood sample even at early stages of the disease. At 1-10 CTCs per mL whole blood compared to millions of white and billions of red blood cells, their concentration is extremely low and highly sensitive flow cytometers and cell sorters are required to detect and isolate them.

DNA sequencing and characterization

Following detection and isolation of the CTCs, the next step is the characterization. This characterization can and must go down to the molecular level and even the DNA of a single tumor cell can be sequenced. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is used to generate the data reliably and quickly.

NGS is able to record the nucleotide sequence of DNA with significantly increased throughput compared to traditional sequencing methods such as Sanger sequencing. The DNA sequence can yield information about the type of tumor, the CTC-specific mutations and thus enable a specific prognosis on disease progression and help in therapy design. Combining NGS and CTCs can therefore be a viable alternative to traditional invasive biopsies.

Liquid Flow Meters


Sensirion’s liquid flow meters establish new standards wherever monitoring of low liquid flow rates, liquid handling, and liquid dispensing are important. Technology allows bidirectional measurement of the liquid flow through the wall of the sensor’s flow channel in milliliters, microliters, and down to single-digit nanoliters per minute. Applications in fields such as medical devices, diagnostics, process control, and automation technology benefit daily from our safe and reliable sensor solutions.

Sensirion Liquid Flow Meters SLS 1500


Sensirion Liquid Flow Meters Lx-Series

Sensirion Liquid Flow Meters LPGx


Sensirion Liquid Flow Meters LD20




New Possibilities in Diagnostics Thanks to Miniature Flow Sensor


New Possibilities in Diagnostics Thanks to Miniature Flow Sensor


In medical diagnostics, the trend towards near-patient lab diagnostics (point-of-care testing, or POCT) continues apace. The idea is that testing should take place as promptly as possible and ideally directly at the patient’s bedside. For more complex examinations, precise microfluidic systems are required.

One well-known example of a POCT is a urine test using a paper strip. In these tests, the different components of urine – such as red and white blood cells, glucose and the pH value – cause color changes on the reactive surfaces of the test strip. By comparing of the color patterns to a reference scale, the nurse can ascertain qualitative information about the concentration of the various substances in the sampled urine. In an even simpler exemplary procedure, the oxygen saturation of blood can be determined non-invasively through the skin by clipping an optical sensor to the fingertip of the patient. Previously, before the advent of these pulse oximeters, a blood sample had to be taken and sent to the central lab for testing.

More complex tests – for example, to detect certain viruses or bacteria – still depend on the elaborate infrastructure and specialist personnel of a central lab. Such tests often require additional steps in terms of sample preparation or pre-treatment, special temperature conditions or complex devices for analysis. In order to carry out these tests directly at the patients’ bedside in the hospital, the test procedures must be simplified and interaction with the user minimized. In ideal cases, the entire test is conducted independently on a single microfluidic system; i.e. the entire ‘lab’ is integrated on a chip and thus becomes a ‘lab on a chip’.

Microfluidic POCT

In recent decades, a great deal of research has been carried out in the field of microfluidics, particularly in the biosciences, with the aim of miniaturizing and automating lab experiments, diagnostic tests and (bio)chemical processes. Instead of pipetting discrete quantities of liquids from one container to another, today the liquid in a microfluidic system flows through the tiny channels of a manifold. The liquid in these channels is generally moved by external pumps or pressure sources to which the fluidic chip is connected. To control the applied pressures or stabilize the flow generated by the pump, the flow rate is measured using flow sensors. Thanks to their outstanding sensitivity even at extremely minimal flow rates, Sensirion’s microthermal mass flow meters for liquids set the industry standard in the precise monitoring of liquid flows in microfluidic systems.

The dimensions of the channels in the fluidic system have been significantly reduced down to the micrometer range, with the liquid volumes in the microliter or even nanoliter range. This enables the microfluidics to drastically reduce the sample and reagent quantities, enable faster reactions and thus increase throughput. And the smaller size of the fluidic system also means lower costs and smaller devices. Both are necessary conditions in order to conduct tests in a decentralized manner directly at the place of care; i.e. at the bedside, on the same hospital floor or in a doctor’s office. This, in turn, simplifies the logistics and provides faster results for better and more targeted treatment of patients.

Possible applications in medical technology and other fields

Commercially available microfluidic POCT devices can be used, for example, to measure proteins used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of heart attacks. Other devices analyze blood samples to determine the composition of red and white blood cells, and their subtypes. Another application in medical technology is cytometry to determine the concentration of T helper cells in monitoring the immune systems of HIV/AIDS patients. Finally, efforts are also under way to transfer molecular-biological methods for the detection of, for example, antibiotic resistant bacteria via their DNA to point-of-care systems. Even genetic fingerprints for forensic purposes can be created using POCT devices.

However, microfluidics play an increasingly important role in areas other than the clinical field, such as research and development and industrial process monitoring. In particular, microbiology is absolutely critical today in the food and drinks production sector; it is used to monitor the quality of yeast cells that ferment malt to beer, and the bacterial populations in milk, which must not exceed certain threshold values. Hitherto, discrete samples have been diverted from the production process and sent to laboratories for testing; now new types of miniaturized flow cytometers enable direct verification of individual production lots or even continuous monitoring on the production line.

Improved performance through precise flow monitoring

Sensirion Liquid Flow Meters Flow Meter Kit LPG open
Sensirion Liquid Flow Meters Flow Meter Kit LPG closed


Liquid Flow Meter


Micro Flow Rate Liquid Flow Meter Model F7M

By combining a thermal MEMS sensor and a highly corrosion-resistant quartz glass flow path, the product can measure micro flow rates liquid flow of under 50 mL/min with a high degree of repeatability, which would be a difficult for traditional measurement methods.
Product development was based on the concept of adopting a measurement method that is minimally susceptible to changes in the state of the fluid (e.g., bubbles, pulsation, fluid temperature changes), and making the product user-friendly, with easy-to-use correction functions for measured fluids (correction based on the thermal conductivity of the fluid).
Measuring the instantaneous and integrating flow rates instead of previous methods (e.g., measuring the pump rotation speed, measuring the weight, or managing the fluid supply time) contributes reliable quality management and detection of anomalies in process based on measured values.

Measures 50 mL/min or lower

Features the thermal flow measurement principle using MEMS sensing technology.
Measuring micro flow rates under 50 mL/min of liquid, which traditionally has been difficult, is now possible.
(Measurement range: 0.1 to 10 mL/min, 0.3 to 30 mL/min, 0.5 to 50 mL/min)

Compact, light-weight, and easy to install

This model is more compact and lighter than its predecessors.
By using the mounting bracket (including in a package), it can be easily installed on a surface (for horizontal pipe connection).
It can also be installed for vertical pipe connection.
A separate converter (amplifier) is not required.


Mounting Orientation


Straight flow path

The straight flow channel means pressure loss is lower and cleaning is easier, with no puddles of liquid.

Flexible installation and wide range of fluids

Compliant with IP65 protection rating.
Exterior contains no metal, providing improved resistance to corrosive fluids, allowing use in environments with liquid spray.
Can be used for a variety of fluids, so long as they do not corrode fused quartz glass (the material of the flow path) or fluororesin (the material of the fitting).
The sensor does not come into contact with any fluids.



substantion:from theory to practice




 ISBN: 978-600-8899-74-7


                     writer:Kamran Hassanpouri Baesmat


Unbalanced distribution of the distribution network by using intracellular solar cells


Unbalanced distribution of the  distribution network by using intracellular solar cells

Kamran Hassanpouri Baesmat 1 Navid Ruzbehani 2 Danial Bakhtiari 3

Review :

The electricity industry is one of the most vital industries in a country.

Meanwhile, the electricity distribution network is the intersection of electricity industry subscribers, and the problems of the distribution system in this industry from the perspective of consumers, will be considered the problem of the entire electricity industry.

Increasing development, lack of accurate forecasting of this trend and backwardness of technology have always caused problems in the electricity distribution system.

Therefore, I decided to measure the effect of in-line solar cells to eliminate the imbalance of the distribution network and examine its conditions.

Keywords: PCC, IGBT, Hysteresis, PI-Fuzzy


جبران سازی نامتعادلی شبکه توزیع با استفاده از بکارگیری سلول های خورشیدی درون خطی

کامران حسن پوری باعصمت 1 نوید روزبهانی 2 دانیال بختیاری 3

چکیده :
صنعت برق یکی از حیاتی ترین صنایع یک کشور به حساب می آید. در این میان شبکه تورزیع انرژی الکتریکی محل تلاقی مشترکین صنعت برق می باشد و اشکالات سیستم توزیع در این صنعت از دید مصرف کنندگان،مشکل کلیه صنعت برق قلمداد خواهد شد.توسعه روز افزون، عدم پیش بینی صحیح این روند و عقب ماندگی تکنولوژی همواره مشکلاتی را در سیستم توزیع انرژی الکتریکی به همراه داشته است. به همین علت برآن شدم تا تاثیر سلول های خورشیدی درون خطی را برای رفع نامتعادلی شبکه توزیع سنجیده و شرایط آن را بررسی نمایم.

کلمات کلیدی : PCC،IGBT،Hysteresis،PI-Fuzzy (


Improve network voltage stability by SVC location


Improve network voltage stability by SVC location

Kamran Hassanpouri baesmat 1 Danial Bakhtiari 2 Navid Ruzbehani 3


Abstract :


SVC or static reactive power compensator is used to compensate for high reactive electrical power in high voltage transmission networks. SVCs are part of the Fact Sheet family(FACTS = Flexible AC transmission system) and are naturally used to control the status of AC power networks and increase the transmission capacity.The main function of the oscilloscope is to adjust the voltage and stability of the power system.


Keywords : svc, facts, genetic algorithm, HBMO. (

A New Combined Method for Future Energy Forecasting in Electrical Networks



Growing the industry and population in a region leads to the growth of required amount of electrical energy. Electrical companies should provide high quality energy according to the demand of customers. Load is an effective parameter of any system, and the network programmers should consider the annual load growth of the system and predict the required energy for each region by investigating previously recorded data of consumed electrical energy and stochastic analysis. In this paper, a new combined method for long‐term energy forecasting is proposed. This method, which combines the land‐consumption method and curve fitting based on generalization method, in addition to having simple calculations, takes into account the saturation. Moreover, loads from detailed formal program provided by the relevant institutes have been used, which results in better coordination between all organizations in charge of energy predictions and development of the countries. A suitable filtering method is also employed for input data to improve the method accuracy. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results of different methods have been compared with those of the proposed method as well as real data. Then, real data of former 11 years of consumed energy gathered from Shiraz Electrical Distribution Company subscribers are employed and the energy for future 11 years is forecasted.


A new combined method for future energy forecasting in electrical networks

Maryam Shanechi Receives Prestigious New Innovator NIH Grant


One of Only 53 in the U.S. to receive such an award, she will use the $2.4M grant for a better understanding of the brain


Maryam Shanechi, the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Early Career Chair and assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, will receive a highly coveted grant from the National Institutes of Health’s High Risk, High Reward Research Program.

She joins a select group of only 53 people in the country to receive the NIH Director’s New Innovator Award.


Injecting biomedical electronics for monitoring and therapy of body organs


Implantable electronic devices range from sensors, gastric and cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, to deep brain, nerve, and bone stimulators. These devices are interfaced with the human body to extract precise medical data and to interfere with tissue function by providing electrical stimuli. Long-term implants present specific engineering challenges, including low energy consumption and stable performance. Furthermore, most electronic materials have poor bio- and cytocompatibility, resulting in immune reactions and infections.


Initially, electronics which can interface with the body typical were planar, stiff and bulky silicon wafer-based devices and not well suited to interface with the soft, curvilinear, and dynamic environment that biology presents. To overcome these problems, one of the device classes that researchers have fabricated are relatively novel, miniaturized needle-like carriers in high aspect ratio structures. They are used to deliver tiny sensors and stimulation tools inside the body via minimally invasive injection or insertion into a specific area of an organ.

Comparison of state-of-the-art implantable electronics in different forms


Comparison of state-of-the-art implantable electronics in different forms. (Reprinted with permission by Wiley-VCH Verlag) (click on image to enlarge)


Capacitor banks



A Capacitor bank is a set of many identical capacitors connected in series or parallel within a enclosure and is used for the power factor correction and basic protection of substation.These capacitor banks are acts as a source of reactive power, and thus, the phase difference between voltage and current can be reduced by the capacitor banks. They will increase the ripple current capacity of the supply. It avoids undesirable characteristics in the power system. It is the most economical method for maintaining power factor and of correction of the power lag problems

تابلو بانک خازنی – مشخصات و کاربرد آن ها و سایزینگ و تاثیر هارمونیک بر آن -  ماه صنعت



Relays are used for disconnecting the circuits by manual or automatic operation. Relay consists of the coil which is excited or energized and such that making the contacts of relay closed activates the relay to break or make the circuit connection. There are different types of relays such as over current relays, definite time over current relays, voltage relays, auxiliary relays, reclosing relays, solid state relays, directional relays,inverse time over current relays, microcontroller relays, etc. The above figure shows some basic relays and their operation


Circuit Breakers


For the protection of substation and its components from the over currents or over load due to short circuit or any other fault the faulty section is disconnected from the healthy section either manually or automatically. If once the fault is rectified, then again the original circuit can be rebuilt by manually or automatically. Different types of circuit breakers are designed based on different criteria and usage. But in general mostly used circuit breakers are Oil circuit breaker, Air circuit breaker, SF6 circuit breaker, Vacuum Circuit Breaker, and so on




Isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch that isolates the faulty section or the section of a conductor or a part of a circuit of substation meant for repair from a healthy section in order to avoid occurrence of more severe faults. Hence, it is also called as a disconnector or disconnecting switch. There are different types of isolators used for different applications such as single-break isolator, double-break isolator, bus isolator, line isolator, etc.

Bus Bars​


The conductor carrying current and having multiple numbers of incoming and outgoing line connections can be called as bus bar, which is commonly used in substations. These are classified into different typesPicture like single bus, double bus and ring bus



The metal which does not allow free movement of electrons or electric charge is called as an insulator. Hence, insulators resist electricity with their high resisting property. There are different types of insulators such as suspension type, strain type, stray type, shackle, pin type and so on. A few types of insulators are shown in the above figure. Insulators are used for insulation purpose while erecting electric poles with conductors to avoid short circuit and for other insulation requirements



Instrument Transformers


​The current and voltage transformers are together called as the Instrument transformers.

Current Transformer
Current transformer is used for the measurement of the alternating current by taking samples of the higher currents of the system. These reduced samples are in accurate proportions with the actual high currents of the system. These are used for installation and maintenance of the current relays in substations for protection purpose which are normally have low-current ratings for their operation.

Potential Transformer

Potential transformer is quite similar to the current transformer, but it is used for taking samples of high voltages of a system for providing low-voltage to the relays of protection system and also to the low-rating meters for voltage measurement. From this low-voltage measurement, the actual system’s high voltage can be calculated without measuring high voltages directly to avoid the cost of the measurement system.



Instrument Transformer



Power Transformer


A static electrical machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another circuit without changing frequency is termed as Power Transformer. The transformers are generally used to step down or step up the voltage levels of a system for transmission and generation purpose. These transformers are classified into different types based on their design, utilization purpose, installation methods, and so on.


Electrical Power Transformer



The substation is an assembly of the following major electrical equipments


Electrical Substations

An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in several steps
A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution
پست برق چیست؟ - ویرگول

صفحه قبل 1 صفحه بعد